Psicofarmaci e violenza

violenzaNeuroleptic Drugs and Violence

 

Catherine Clarke SRN, SCM, MSSCH, MBChA.

and Jan Evans MCSP. Grad Dip Phys.

August 19th, 2012

Introduction

 

We address the fact that the treatment for Severe Mental Illness (SMI) is neuroleptic medication. One has to give significant thought about the involvement of neuroleptic medications with the tragic circumstances of individuals who have perpetuated a progressive catalogue of catastrophic actions, and the many victims and their families who so sadly are caught up in such tragedies.

 

It is established that there is an increased risk of violence by people with a mental health diagnosis. A greater risk of violent behaviour (27.6%) has been found for patients who commit substance abuse, compared to non-abusers (8.5%). For patients with schizophrenia, 13.2 % committed at least one violent offence, compared with 5.3% of the general population.1

 

Violence is reported with command hallucinations: 48% experienced harmful or dangerous actions and this increased to 63% in medium secure units and was significantly higher, 83%, in the forensic population.2

 

People who are classified as SMI i.e. with schizophrenia or bipolar often experience violent incidents following a diagnosis of SMI, even though they don’t consume alcohol or use street drugs, nor having a past history of violence or command hallucinations to harm others.

Our purpose of this document is to provide a referenced explanation of how neuroleptic medications are a potential cause of violence. We take a physiological perspective concerning pharmacogenetic variants and the disruption of neurotransmitters. In Part 1 we discuss what is known about Neuroleptics and Neurotransmitters; in Part 2, the Neuroleptic Disruption of Neurotransmitters

 

Part 1

 

The first part of this document has the following structure:            

·       Violence

  • Neuroleptic Adverse Effects on Behaviour
  • Serotonin Disruption
  • Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine Disruption
  • Acetylcholine Disruption including Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and Organophosphate Poisoning

·       Neuroleptic Withdrawal Adverse Effects on Behaviour

·       Neurotransmitter Functioning and Behaviour

·       Increased Prescribing of Neuroleptics as a Risk for Increased Violence

 

Violence

This is an important issue. In three acute psychiatric units in Australia it was reported: “58 % of the incidents were serious violent incidents.”3 In an attempt to address psychiatric violence in the UK, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has a full clinical guideline: Violence. The short-term management of disturbed/violent behaviour in in-patient psychiatric settings and emergency departments.4 Although this addresses many issues, it omits the following potential causes of violence:

  • Neuroleptic medications – due to neuroleptic disruption of neurotransmitter circuits such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine/noradrenaline and acetylcholine.
  • Pharmacogenetics – the issue of inefficient neuroleptic metabolising.

 

Adverse Effects on Behaviour of Neuroleptics

 

Neuroleptic toxic adverse reactions are related to behavioural changes such as akathesia, which is known to be a predisposing factor to violence5 and was formally recognised in the late 1970s.6

 

The symptoms of akathisia, an extreme, involuntary internal physical and emotional restlessness, includes restlessness, agitation and irritability.

 

When there is an existing precondition of akathisia, any perceived untoward disrespectful attitudes or verbal communications can trigger violence. When patients are agitated or irritable, they are less able to cope with perceived disrespect and are more prone to respond violently.

 

A marked increase of violence has occurred with patients prescribed moderately high-doses of haloperidol,7 and with Asian patients clozapine played a role in causing aggression and disruptive behaviour.8 Both the older ‘typical’ and the newer ‘atypical’ neuroleptics are associated with adverse behavioural reactions in a study reporting that “the newer antipsychotics did not reduce violence more than perphenazine.”9

 

Chart Depicting Toxic Behavioural Effects for Typical Neuroleptics:

 

 

Typical Neuroleptics

 

 

Adverse Reactions Related to Violence

Clopixol Agitation & akathisia
Haloperidol Restlessness, agitation and violence
Stelazine Restlessness
Sulpiride Restlessness & akathisia

 

 Refs 7, 10 &11

 

Chart Depicting the Toxic Behavioural Effects for Atypical Neuroleptics:

 

           

Atypical Neuroleptics

 

Adverse Reactions Related to Violence

Abilify Restlessness, agitation and akathisia
Amisulpride Agitation

Clozaril

Akathisia and agitation
Olanzapine Restlessness and agitation
Palperidone/Invega Akathisia and aggression
Quetiapine Akathisia and irritability
Risperidone Agitation
Sertindole Akathisia
Zotepine Akathisia

 

Ref 10

                       

Observations in prison have also associated neuroleptic treatment with increased aggressive behaviour. Inmates were better able to control their aggression until they were prescribed neuroleptics and then the aggression rate almost tripled.12

 

Neuroleptic Withdrawal Adverse Effects on Behaviour

 

There is also the issue of violence experienced during withdrawal. Irritability and agitation is reported in association with neuroleptic withdrawal,13 and a direct reference links akathisia following the withdrawal of a depot in an inpatient setting.14 Irritability, agitation and akathisia need to be recognised as reactions to neuroleptic withdrawal. 

In order to prevent violence in association with akathisia and withdrawal, this process needs to be undertaken by a professional or lay-person who understands the potential problems and can therefore guard against unwittingly appearing at all antagonistic to the patient.

Neurotransmitter Functioning and Behaviour

 

Fundamentally, human behaviour is determined by neurotransmitter functioning and “A rich literature exists to support the notion that monoamine (i.e. serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine) neurotransmitter functioning is related to human aggressive behaviour.”15

 

Dopamine, serotonin and all other neurotransmitter circuits are interdependent and any disturbance in one will result in an imbalance in them all, disrupting normal functioning. Jackson’s First Law of Biopsychiatry states:  “For every action, there is an unequal and frequently unpredictable reaction.”16

 

Chronic neuroleptic treatment causes unpredictable behavioural reactions due to dysregulation and disruptions between dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine neurotransmitters.

 

Neuroleptics and Serotonin Disruption

 

Some neuroleptics are known as serotomimetic drugs, affecting serotonin receptors – some block the receptors and some make them more active. “There are 14 different types of serotonin receptors that may be targeted by neuroleptics, with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and clopixol especially affecting the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor.”17 

           

Mental status changes occur in Serotonin Syndrome. This is caused by neuroleptic drugs due to serotonin toxicity.

Animal research indicates that serotonin disruption is associated with increased violence. Reduced levels of a specific serotonin metabolite (5-HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid has been linked with increased aggression in both dogs and male rhesus macaques18-19 and low concentrations of 5-HIAA in different cultures have been consistently reported to be associated with impulsive destructive behaviours, aggression and violence.20

 

Since “Impulsive violence is closely linked to serotonergic function and to several brain regions”21 and since impulsivity is also linked with both low and high serotonin levels it is difficult to know which of these changes play the most important role in treatment emergent violence.”17 

 

The reciprocal interaction between the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems disturbed by either dopaminergic blockers or serotonergic enhancers leads to the disruption of homeostasis.22 Although the serotonin system and its interactions with other neurotransmitters are complex and full information is difficult to find, there are clear research papers, which show that serotonin and aggression are related.

 

Chart depicting Neuroleptic Serotonin Disruption associated Adverse Toxic Behavioural Effects:

Akathisia Irritability
Suicidality

Violence

Arson Aggression
Violent Crime Self Destructiveness
Impulsive Acts Agitation
Hostility Violent Suicide
Argumentativeness

 

Ref 23 & 24

 

Neuroleptics and Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine Disruption

 

Neuroleptics affect the norepinephrine neurotransmitter and akathisia induction with haloperidol is known to be associated with increased noradrenaline turnover.25- 26

 

Neuroleptics and Acetylcholine Disruption

 

An important function of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter is the control of psychological defence mechanisms including fight or flight responses.  Such responses are impulsive and naturally include aggression and violence.

 

In varying degrees, all neuroleptic drugs have anticholinergic properties. This means that they block and cause disruption to the acetylcholine neurotransmitters. The body compensates and responds by making and releasing more acetylcholine.27

 

Acetylcholine Disruption and Increased Violence

 

Aggressive responses such as defensive rage and violence have been linked with excessive acetylcholine in animals28 –30 and a relative acetylcholine increase is associated with neuroleptic drugs due to the disruption of the dopamine-acetylcholine equilibrium.31-32

 

Since excessive acetylcholine is linked with aggression and violence in animals, it is likely that neuroleptic induced acetylcholine abundance triggers aggression and violence in humans.

Neuroleptic → Disrupted dopamine-acetylcholine equilibrium → Relative acetylcholine increase → Aggression/Violence.

 

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and Organophosphate Exposure

 

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is an adverse effect of neuroleptics, a potentially fatal condition with up to 76% mortality rate.  Symptoms of NMS include aggression, agitation and violence.27 & 33 New research associates NMS with elevated acetylcholine.34

 

Organophosphate chemicals form the basis of many insecticides, herbicides and nerve gases. They block the action of the body’s acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which breaks down acetylcholine so it may be processed and recycled. Excessive acetylcholine accumulates in the nervous system if the action of this enzyme is blocked.

 

Prolonged and repeated exposure to Organophosphates results in Chronic Organophosphate-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorder (COPIND) e.g. in farmers who handle pesticides, due to chronic Organophosphate Poisoning (OP). COPIND behavioural symptom changes include: Hostility, Anger, Aggression and Violence.35-36  Since OP results in excessive acetylcholine, which is linked with aggression and violence in animals, the behavioural changes in COPIND are highly likely caused by excessive acetylcholine.

 

The link between Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and Organophosphate Poisoning

 

The symptoms of NMS and OP are similar. In both NMS and OP the replication of symptoms is due to autonomic instability and stems from disruption of the acetylcholine circuits and transmitters of the Autonomic Nervous System, involved with vital involuntary functions.

 

Autonomic Instability includes profuse sweating, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, respiratory distress, drooling, urinary or faecal incontinence, increased and

decreased heart rate.27

Chart Depicting the Symptom Similarities of NMS and OP

 

 

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

 

Organophosphate Poisoning

 

Autonomic nervous system disturbance Autonomic Instability

Aggression, agitation and violence

Aggression
Muscle rigidity Paralysis, Dystonia, Cranial nerve palsy and polyneuropathy                                                                                                                                                                   
Muscle breakdown Weak respiratory and limb muscles
Coma, alterations of consciousness Loss of consciousness
Confusion Dementia, psychosis, anxiety, depression
Fever Seizures

 

Refs 27 & 33

Conclusion: Organophosphates, Neuroleptics and Violence

 

Organophosphate Poisoning results in over stimulated acetylcholine neuro-circuits and systems. The action of neuroleptics is similar.  It is generally accepted that Organophosphate Poisoning results in behavioural changes including violence.

 

Despite research to show that neuroleptics are associated with disrupted acetylcholine, it is not yet generally accepted that neuroleptics are a potential cause of violence.

 

Antipsychotic/neuroleptic drugs have strong anti-cholinergic properties and long-term use causes behavioural changes, which replicate the same behavioural changes occurring in chronic Organophosphate Poisoning:  

 

“This adaptation (to psychiatric drugs – author input) replicates the effect of organophosphate poisoning whether by nerve gas, by insecticide, or by anti-Alzheimers pharmaceuticals by over stimulating acetylcholine circuits of the brain.”27  

 

Increased Prescribing of Neuroleptics

 

There has been a distinct increase in neuroleptic medications, prescribed as part of treatment for mental health issues.

 

In the UK between 1998 and 2010, Neuroleptic drug prescriptions increased by an average of 5.1% every year.37 Over twelve years, this is a total increase of 60%.

 

In England, the approximate number of neuroleptic and depot (injection) prescriptions used by outpatients:

2008 – 7.0 million

2009 – 7.3 million

2010 – 7.6 million

2011 – 7.9 million38

 

However, due to confidentiality, the data for the number of neuroleptic prescriptions in inpatient settings is not made available. So the actual total increase of neuroleptic prescriptions in the UK is unknown.

 

Increased Prescribing as a Risk for Increased Violence

 

 

As outlined above, neuroleptics are a possible cause of violence. With ever increased prescribing of neuroleptic medications, it is reasonable to expect an increased amount of violent behaviour amongst those with a severe mental health diagnosis.

 

Since neuroleptic prescriptions are increasing by 300,000 per year in the UK, it is hypothesized that the rise in violence for neuroleptic-treated patients will escalate, whether in the community or in acute wards, secure units, prisons or outpatient units.

 

Part 2. Neuroleptics and Pharmacogenetics

 

The second part of this document has the following structure:

  • Introduction to Pharmacogenetics regarding Neuroleptics
  • Pharmacogenetics and Ethnic Black Populations
  • Black Populations and Psychiatric Intensive Care Units
  • Black Populations, detention under the UK Mental Health Act and UK Community Treatment Orders
  •  Pharmacogenetics as an explanation for Black Over-representation in

Psychiatric Intensive Care Units, detentions within the UK Mental

Health Act and Community Treatment Orders

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

Introduction to Pharmacogenetics with regards to Neuroleptics

 

Pharmacogenetics is the science of how drugs are broken down and used – i.e. metabolised in the body, mainly in the liver, by the genetically diverse Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme system and other drug metabolising systems. There are many CYP450 variants that affect therapeutic efficacy and inefficacy of medications.

 

Extensive Metabolisers are efficient metabolisers, whereby side-effects do not build up. Poor Metabolisers are inefficient metabolisers that have no metabolising activity whatsoever; this means that drug toxicities do build up and cause side effects. Intermediate Metabolisers have approximately 50% drug metabolising capacity and produce lesser side-effects than Poor Metabolisers.39 Ultra Rapid Metabolisers/ Hyperinducers have higher than normal rates of drug metabolism; Those medications which are classified as prodrugs are inactive until metabolised in the body, therefore Ultra Rapid Metabolisers are at increased risk of drug-induced side effects due to increased exposure to prodrug active drug metabolites.40

 

Neuroleptic drugs are metabolised through CYP450 enzymes e.g.CYP450 1A2, 2D6 and 2C19. A single neuroleptic can necessitate a combination of CYP450 enzymes for metabolisation.

All SMI patients who are Poor and/or Intermediate Metabolisers of neuroleptics, and Ultra Metabolisers of neuroleptic prodrugs; e.g. paliperidone, the active metabolite of risperidone; will inevitably suffer neurological and behavioural changes due to toxicities incurred from the inability to metabolise neuroleptics efficiently. Polypharmacy compounds the toxicities.

 

CYP450 1A2 Metabolising Pathway and Neuroleptics

CYP450 1A2 enzyme pathway has many variants and metabolises olanzapine and haloperidol and is the major metabolising enzyme for clozapine.

 

CYP1A2*1C and *1D Poor Metabolisers have been associated with increased clozapine exposure and adverse reactions.41 CYP1A2*1K is also Poor Metaboliser genotype.42

 

In one study, Asian patients who were prescribed clozapine, experienced aggression and disruptive behaviour who, following clozapine discontinuation, had marked improvement.8 The genotype of the Asian patients in the study is unknown, however since 25% of Asians have CYP1A2*1C Poor Metaboliser genotype,43  it is possible these patients were either CYP1A2*1C, *1D or *1K or a combination of these Poor Metaboliser genotypes.

 

Additionally15-20% of Asians are Poor Metabolisers for CYP2C19 and 2% are Poor Metabolisers for CYP2D6.44CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 metabolise clozapine as well as CYP1A2; any of these combinations are possible and could have predisposed to disruptive behaviour.

CYP450 2D6 Metabolising Pathway and Neuroleptics

 

75% of all psychotropic drugs, including neuroleptics, are metabolised via CYP450 2D6.45 CYP450 2D6 is a highly variable enzyme with a significant percentage of the population being Poor, Intermediate or Ultra Metabolisers and is linked with a poor therapeutic response and adverse reactions.

 

Violence in relation with serotonin toxicity/akathisia has been linked with pharmacogenetic CYP450 2D6 drug metabolising variants.46

 

Pharmacogenetics and Ethnic Black Populations

 

Due to genetic variations there is higher incidence of Poor Metaboliser and Ultra Metaboliser status in Black populations, compared with White and Asian populations for the CYP 450 2D6 pathway. “The prevalence of poor metabolizers in Black populations has been estimated from 0 to 19%, compared with consistent reports of   poor metabolizer status in Caucasians (5–10%) and Asians (0–2%).”47

 

Recalling that 75% of neuroleptic medications are metabolised via CYP450 2D6, the following table shows the variation of metabolising ability in black ethnic populations for CYP450 2D6.

 

 

Poor Metabolisers

Ultra Metabolisers

South Africans

18.8%

Nigerians

8.6-8.3%

Ghanaians

6%

African – American

3.9%

2.4%

Zimbabwean

2%

Tanzanian

2%

American Black

1.9%

Ethiopians

1.8%

29%

 

Ref 48

 

29% of Ethiopians and 2.4% of North African Americans are Ultra Metabolisers via CYP450 2D6 pathway.48 Furthermore, 10-20% of Africans are Poor Metabolisers and 5% are Ultra Metabolisers via CYP450 2C19.49

 

Many prescription medications can lead to “serious mental change.”50 Since black populations statistically have difficulty in metabolising general and psychotropic medications and cannabis via the CYP450 pathways, this factor could contribute to  BME groups living in the UK who are more likely to be diagnosed with a Mental Health problem and admitted to hospital.51

 

 

Psychiatric Intensive Care Units and Over-representation of Black Populations

In UK Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU), there is clear over-representation of black ethnic patients.52 Another study showed fifty-five percent of PICU admissions came from ethnic minorities(compared with 25.6% of total hospital admissions and 20.9%of the local catchment area population aged between 16 and 65years).53

“TypicalPICU patients are male, younger, single, unemployed, sufferingfrom schizophrenia or mania, from a Black Caribbean or Africanbackground, legally detained, with a forensic history. The mostcommon reason for admission is for aggression management.”54

 

UK Mental Health Act Detentions and Over-representation of Black Populations

There is also a disproportionately large representation of Black Minority and Ethnic (BME) origin when considering those who are legally detained under the UK Mental Health Act.

The proportion of black and black British people legally detained rose by 9.7%, with a 9% rise in the number of Asian or Asian British and mixed-race people detained for treatment, compared to a 0.3% rise for the overall number of people detained from 2007/8 to 2008/9. This disparity grew and 53.9% of black/black British inpatients spent time compulsorily detained, as did almost half of mixed-race inpatients and over 40% of Asian/Asian British inpatients, compared with 31.8% of all psychiatric inpatients who spent some time detained during the year.55

 

UK Community Treatment Orders and Black Populations

Legal UK Community Treatment Orders are enforced when patients have received mental health ‘treatment’ i.e. neuroleptics and history of violence; BME Groups have more Community Treatment Orders than white populations.56

“There is a possible relationship for psychiatric in-patients between compulsory detention, disturbed behaviour, depot medication and being black, which is not satisfactorily explained by diagnosis alone.”57

 

The higher incidence of mental health problems in black populations is most likely due to the higher incidence of Poor, Intermediate and Ultra Metabolisers and the associated problems with metabolising medications.

 

Synopsis

Neuroleptics can be a cause of violence due to neurotransmitter disruption.

 

Violence must be considered not simply as an indication of how deeply schizophrenia /bipolar illness can worsen, but as an adverse effect of neuroleptic treatment.

 

People who are inefficient metabolisers are likely to suffer more severe adverse effects and become violent or aggressive.

 

BME populations have a higher incidence of inefficient metabolisers and as such a higher incidence of violence leading to PICU admissions and Mental Health Act detentions.

 

However whatever the nationality, when individuals are Poor and Intermediate Metabolisers and Ultra Rapid Metabolisers for prodrugs, the impact of neuroleptics in triggering akathisia, aggression or irritability can trigger violence indiscriminately.

 

Conclusion

There is a larger incidence of violence in people with a severe mental health diagnosis than in the general population. The severely mentally ill are invariably treated with neuroleptic medication which itself can be the cause of violence since neuroleptic medications disrupt neurotransmitter functions. This disruption of neurotransmitter functioning can precipitate violent behaviour. Withdrawal of neuroleptic medication – due again to the disruption of neurotransmitters – is also associated with violence.

 

Pharmacogenetics show that the some people are unable to metabolise neuroleptic medication and this inability can result in further disruption of neurotransmitter functioning with a likelihood of increased violence.

The inability to metabolise neuroleptic medication is particularly prevalent in BME populations. As a consequence this population experience more violence which is confirmed in practice by an over representation of BME individuals, both on Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) where a common reason for admission is aggression, and the use of Mental Health Act detentions and Community Treatment Orders.

 

With the trend towards increased prescribing of neuroleptic medications, a level of increased violence can be anticipated for the future.

 

There is the possibility of ameliorating the presence of violence in the severely mentally ill by ensuring pharmacogenetics is more fully recognised as a significant factor, and that genotype testing is adopted in order to assess the ability of the individual to metabolise neuroleptic medication. Without this testing,

much of the violence in psychiatry can be laid at the door of  psychiatrists and the  pharmaceutical companies.

References:

 

Ref 1 Fazel S, et al, (2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19454640

 

Ref 2 Birchwood et al. (2011)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/11/155/

 

Ref 3 Owen C. et al, (1998) http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?Volume=49&page=1452&journalID=18

 

Ref 4 http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/10964/29715/29715.pdf

 

Ref 5 Crowner ML, et al (1990) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1973544

 

Ref 6  GB. Leong, M.D. and JA Silva, M.D. (2003)

http://library-resources.cqu.edu.au/JFS/PDF/vol_48/iss_1/JFS2002173_481.pdf

 

 

Ref 7 John N. Herrera et al (1998)

http://psychrights.org/research/Digest/NLPs/RWhitakerAffidavit/HerreraNeurolepticsandViolence.PDF

 

Ref 8 KA.Mansour, C.Willan and J.Follansbee (2003)  http://bapauk.com/doc/Deteriorationofpsychosisinducedbyclozapine_41.doc

 

Ref 9 Jeffrey W. Swanson et al, (2008) http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/193/1/37.full

 

Ref 10  Drug Monographs, Prescribing information and UK NICE Guidelines 2007 – 2012. 

 

Ref 11  Jerome L. Schulte, (1985) http://psychrights.org/research/Digest/NLPs/RWhitakerAffidavit/Schulte.PDF

 

Ref 12 D.G. Workman and D.G. Cunningham (1975) page 65

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2274756/pdf/canfamphys00332-0065.pdf

 

Ref 13 MIND  http://www.mind.org.uk/help/medical_and_alternative_care/making_sense_of_coming_off_psychiatric_drugs

 

Ref 14 Theodore Van Putten, (1975)

http://psychrights.org/research/Digest/NLPs/RWhitakerAffidavit/VanPuttenManyFacesofAkathisia.PDF

 

Ref 15 Berman ME, Coccaro EF. Neurobiologic correlates of violence: relevance to

criminal responsibility.” Behav Sci Law. 1998 Summer;16(3):303-18. Review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9768463  

Ref16 Jackson, Grace E. MD, Appendix D, Transcript of

            “What Doctors May Not Tell You About Psychiatric Drugs”           

Public Lecture, Centre for Community Mental Health UCE Birmingham June 2004

 

Ref 17 Jackson Grace E. (2005)  Rethinking Psychiatric Drugs: A Guide for Informed Consent.  Bloomington, IN: Author House.

 

Ref18 Reisner I, et al, (1996) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8861609

 

Ref 19 Mehlman P, et al (1990) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7522411

 

Ref 20 Brown GL & Linnoila MI (1990) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1691169

 

Ref 21 Muller JL et al (2004) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15570500

 

Ref 22 Odagaki (2009) http://www.benthamscience.com/cds/samples/cds4-1/0013CDS.pdf

 

Ref 23 Breggin (2003/4) http://www.breggin.com/31-49.pdf

 

Ref 24 Pert CB. Ph.D., (2001) http://ecommerce.drugawareness.org/Ribbon/SSRIMeds.html

 

Ref 25 Naveed Iqbal, MD, et al, (2007) http://www.cnsspectrums.com/aspx/articledetail.aspx?articleid=1262

 

Ref 26 Hall LM et al (1995) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7543647

 

Ref 27 Grace Jackson MD (2009) Drug Induced Dementia. A Perfect Crime Bloomington, IN: Author House.

 

Ref 28 Siegel A, Bhatt S. (2007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2435345/

 

Ref 29 Stefan M. Brudzynski, et al (1990) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2293258

 

Ref 30 Graeff FG. (1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7916235

 

Ref 31 Imperato A. et al, (1993) “Evidence that neuroleptics increase striatal acetylcholine release through stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors” http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/266/2/557.abstract 

 

Ref 32 Donald W. Black, Nancy C. Andreasen – Introductory Textbook of Psychiatry – (2011) 5th Edition p.544 American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.

 

Ref 33 Kasantikul D, Kanchanatawan B, (2006)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17214072

 

 Ref 34 Tanya C. Warwick, et al, (2008)

http://www.nature.com/nrneurol/journal/v4/n3/full/ncpneuro0728.html

 

Ref 35 Davies et al, (2000) http://www.national-toxic-encephalopathy-foundation.org/oppest.pdf

 

Ref 36 Singh S, Sharma N. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning. Neurol India 2000;48:308. http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2000/48/4/308/1510

 

Ref 37 Trends in prescriptions and costs of drugs for mental disorders in England, 1998–2010 Stephen Ilyas and Joanna Moncrieff (2012)

http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/early/2012/03/10/bjp.bp.111.104257.abstract

 

Ref 38 NHS The Information Centre for Health and Social Care  “Copyright © 2012, Re-used with the permission of the Health and Social Care Information Centre.     www.ic.nhs.uk

 

Ref 39 Genelex http://www.healthanddna.com/healthcare-professional/dosing-recommendations.html

 

Ref 40 Genelex http://www.healthanddna.com/healthcare-professional/p450-2d6-genotyping.html

 

Ref 41 Clinical and Translational Science: Principles of Human Research by David Robertson and Gordon H. Williams Academic Press Inc; 1 edition (16 Jan 2009) Chapter 21 page 303

 

Ref 42 Aklillu et al, 2003 CYP1A2 allele nomenclature http://www.imm.ki.se/CYPalleles/cyp1a2.htm

 

Ref 43 Todesco et al (2003) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851801 

 

Ref 44 Asian PM for 2D6 Cozza et al 2003 and Richelson 1997 in Clinical Manual of Geriatric Psychopharmacology  By Sandra A. Jacobson, Ronald W. Pies, Ira R. Katz  Publisher: American Psychiatric Press Inc.; 1 edition (30 Jan 2007) Page 44 & 45

 

Ref 45 Joan Arehart-Treichel (2005)

http://pnhw.psychiatryonline.org/content/40/10/33.1.full

 

Ref 46 Lucire Y, Crotty C, (2011)

http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=7993

 

Ref 47 Bradford LD, Kirlin WG. (1998).  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11281961

Ref 48 Benny K. Abraham, C. Adithan  (2001)  http://medind.nic.in/ibi/t01/i3/ibit01i3p147.pdf

 

Ref 49 Genelex http://www.healthanddna.com/healthcare-professional/p450-2c19-genotyping.html

Ref 50 APRIL, Adverse Psychiatric Reactions Information Link http://www.april.org.uk/main/index.php?uid=269

Ref 51 Mental Health Foundation – Black and Minority Ethnic Communities 

http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/B/BME-communities/

 

Ref 52 Stephen Pereira et al, (2006) 

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=651260

 

Ref 53 Anthony Feinstein  and Frank Holloway(2002)

http://isp.sagepub.com/content/48/1/38.short

 

 

 

Ref 54 Len Bower (2008)

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/iop/depts/hspr/research/ciemh/mhn/projects/litreview/LitRevPICU.pdf

 

Ref 55 Community Care For everyone in social care “Mental Health Act detentions rise sharply for BME groups”  

http://www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/25/11/2009/113253/mental-health-act-detentions-rise-sharply-for-bme-groups.htm

 

Ref 56 National Mental Health Development Unit. BME Groups and Mental Health – Presentation and Evidence to the Centre for Social Justice Mental Health Review 18 October 2010. www.nmhdu.org.uk/silo/files/bme-groups-and-mental-health-.doc

 

Ref 57 Violence: The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in Psychiatric In-patients and Emergency Departments Guideline, Appendix 1: Ethnicity review evidence tables. p.447 http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/109812/003017_appendices.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 pensieri su “Psicofarmaci e violenza

  1. Grazie al tuo lavoro per un informazione corretta…quanta violenza in se e negli effetti di certe pratiche mediche. Palese dimostrazione di impotenza!

  2. However, if the binge drinking behavior is consistent and frequent (meaning, more than once per week) then that person may have an alcoholism problem.
    The final decision is, of course, the patients. Christian values ultimately include a
    number of attributes. You might see secretive behavior, lying to cover up drug abuse, stealing, ask for money, or selling
    possessions to support their habit. This was my
    reaction to the statement that Zambora had been in rehab.
    These centers apply Christian values and faith
    based drug psychotherapy program to assist teens to overcome with the harsh muscle of
    drug addictions. They go into rehab because a friend, family member or legal authority pushes
    them into it. Alcohol or drug addiction rehab that works wonderfully for
    adults may not address the concerns of teens.

  3. cheap isabel marant come cartoon iron Japan salty dark sudden cross type bye-bye
    isabel marant sneakers feel cover marketplace clerk accident lifetime Frenchman treatment twice little
    isabel marant booties non-smoker regards also flat hamburger onion announcement unsold situation clear
    isabel marant shoes sneakers know-all altogether revolutionary medicine business sigh postman peasant whenever exciting
    http://isabelmarantsneakers104.webs.com instant pleasure discovery http://isabelmarantsneakers104.webs.com tourism energy

  4. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting!
    I actually enjoyed reading it, you may be a great author.I will
    make certain to bookmark your blog and will come back
    very soon. I want to encourage yourself to continue your
    great writing, have a nice weekend!
    I absolutely love your blog and find most of your post’s to be precisely what I’m looking for.
    Would you offer guest writers to write content to suit your needs?
    I wouldn’t mind producing a post or elaborating on a few of the subjects you write in relation to here. Again, awesome website!
    We stumbled over here by a different page and thought I might as well check things out. I like what I see so i am just following you. Look forward to looking at your web page yet again.
    I enjoy what you guys are usually up too. This kind of clever work and coverage! Keep up the superb works guys I’ve
    you guys to my blogroll.
    Good day I am so glad I found your web site, I really found you by accident, while I was searching on Askjeeve
    for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thank you for a marvelous post and
    a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all
    at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added in your
    RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read more, Please do keep up the great
    work.

  5. Hey very nice web site!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your website and take
    the feeds also…I’m happy to find a lot of useful info here in the post, we need work out more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  6. I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see
    a great blog like this one today.

Rispondi

Effettua il login con uno di questi metodi per inviare il tuo commento:

Logo WordPress.com

Stai commentando usando il tuo account WordPress.com. Chiudi sessione / Modifica )

Foto Twitter

Stai commentando usando il tuo account Twitter. Chiudi sessione / Modifica )

Foto di Facebook

Stai commentando usando il tuo account Facebook. Chiudi sessione / Modifica )

Google+ photo

Stai commentando usando il tuo account Google+. Chiudi sessione / Modifica )

Connessione a %s...